Chlamydia infectionoften simply known as chlamydiais a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia can be spread during vaginalSexually transmitted disease caused by chlamydia trachomatis causesor oral sexand can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth.
Prevention is by not having sexthe use of condomsor having sex with only one other person, who is not infected. Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, affecting about 4. The infection can be passed through vaginal, anal, or oral sex. PID can cause scarring inside the reproductive organswhich can later cause serious complications, including chronic pelvic pain, difficulty becoming pregnantectopic tubal pregnancyand other dangerous complications of pregnancy.
Signs and symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, abdominal pain, painful sexual intercoursefeverpainful urination or the urge to urinate more often than usual urinary urgency. For sexually active women who are not pregnant, screening is recommended in those under 25 and others at risk of infection. If left untreated, chlamydia in men can spread to the testicles causing epididymitiswhich in rare cases can lead to sterility if not treated.
Using the SAFE strategy acronym for surgery for in-growing or in-turned lashes, antibioticsfacial cleanliness, and environmental improvementsthe World Health Organization aims for the global elimination of trachoma by GET initiative.
Chlamydia may also cause reactive arthritis —the triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis and urethral inflammation—especially in young men. About 15, men develop reactive arthritis due to chlamydia infection each year in the U.
It can occur in both sexes, though is more common in men. As many as half of all infants born to mothers with chlamydia will be born with the disease. Chlamydia can affect infants by causing spontaneous abortion; premature birth ; conjunctivitiswhich may lead to blindness ; and pneumonia.
A different serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis is also the cause of lymphogranuloma venereuman infection of the lymph nodes and lymphatics. It usually presents with genital ulceration and swollen lymph nodes in the groinbut it may also manifest as rectal inflammationfever or swollen lymph nodes in other regions of the body.
Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex or "Sexually transmitted disease caused by chlamydia trachomatis causes" contact with infected tissue such as conjunctiva. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.
Chlamydiae have the ability to establish long-term associations with host cells. When an infected host cell is starved for various nutrients such as amino acids for example, tryptophan ironor vitaminsthis has a negative consequence for Chlamydiae since the organism is dependent on the host cell for these nutrients.
The starved chlamydiae enter a persistent growth state wherein they stop cell division and become morphologically aberrant by increasing in size. There is much debate as to whether persistence has in vivo relevance.
Many believe that persistent chlamydiae are the cause of chronic chlamydial diseases. The diagnosis of genital chlamydial infections evolved rapidly from the s through NAAT for chlamydia may be performed on swab specimens sampled from the cervix women or urethra Sexually transmitted disease caused by chlamydia trachomatis causeson self-collected vaginal swabs, or on voided urine.
At present, the NAATs have regulatory approval only for testing urogenital specimens, although rapidly evolving research indicates that they may give reliable results on rectal specimens. Because of improved test accuracy, ease of specimen management, convenience in specimen management, and ease of screening sexually active men and women, the NAATs have largely replaced Sexually transmitted disease caused by chlamydia trachomatis causes, the historic gold standard for chlamydia diagnosis, and the non-amplified probe tests.
Culture remains useful in selected circumstances and is currently the only assay approved for testing non-genital specimens. Other method also exist including: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends screening all at risk, while the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend universal screening of pregnant women. Guidelines recommend azithromycindoxycyclineerythromycinlevofloxacin or ofloxacin. Following treatment people should be tested again after three months to check for reinfection.
Globally, as ofsexually transmitted chlamydia affects approximately 61 million people.
In the United States about 1. Chlamydia causes more thancases of epididymitis in the U. Women infected with chlamydia are up to five times more likely to become infected with HIV, if exposed.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Chlamydia disambiguation. Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 10 June Archived from the original on 10 June Archived from the original on 25 November Center For Disease Control. Archived from the original on September 5, Archived from the original on Oxford dictionary of English 3rd ed.
Archived from the original on 10 September Preventive Services Task Force Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement". British Journal of General Practice. Bull World Health Organ. Archived PDF from the original on Trachoma Archived at the Wayback Machine.
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UK Health Protection Agency. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 31 August Retrieved from " https: Sexually transmitted diseases and infections Chlamydia infections Chlamydiae Infectious causes of cancer. Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Infobox medical condition new All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June Articles with medical app sidebar Commons category link is on Wikidata Articles with Curlie links RTT.
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