In the late s Gender Identity Clinics GICs emerged as a response to the growing demand by transsexual people for hormones and sex change surgery. GICs assessed patients for gender identity disorder and upon this diagnosis, provided referrals for hormone therapy and sex change surgery sex reassignment surgery. Patients referred New transsexual surgery this clinic had their surgery funded by the Ontario government until October 1, when sex reassignment surgery SRS funding was removed by the Provincial government.
Individuals presenting with a persistent and compulsive desire to become a member of the opposite sex
New transsexual surgery diagnosed with gender identity disorder GID. Originally, transsexualism was the diagnosis for those presenting with these desires, however this term was replaced with the term gender identity disorder in Transsexualism is recognised as a psychiatric disorder by the American Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organisation. SRS is the recommended treatment for transsexuals who cannot live in their original sex and gender role.
According to the International Journal of Transgenderism, for those presenting with GID are approximately 1 in 11, males and 1 in 30, females. Unfortunately, these numbers are based New transsexual surgery research that reports those presenting for assessment at GICs. Other sources indicate higher numbers of transsexual people upwards of 1 in 10, Transsexual persons work in a variety of fields and professions much like the general Canadian population.
In Canada transsexual people work as university professors, graduate and undergraduate students, clinical psychologists, managers in corporate and non-profit organisations, artists, musicians, mechanics, caretakers, health care workers, housing workers, truck drivers, telemarketers, bartenders, cooks, sex workers, lawyers, police officers, and in the armed forces. Some transsexual persons are underemployed and unemployed.
Transsexual persons live in urban and rural regions across Canada. Migration towards urban centres, particularly Toronto, Vancouver, and Ottawa, occurs as transsexual people attempt to access valuable social and health services critical to their health and wellbeing.
Transsexual persons both rent and own houses and condominiums, rent apartments and live in subsidised housing.
Some transsexual people are homeless and live on the street or in shelters. Transsexual people experience a high level of harassment and discrimination based upon their appearance and identification. This population New transsexual surgery transphobia, which is a fear and hatred of transsexual people. Harassment, discrimination, and transphobia cause barriers to access to education, housing, and employment for transsexual people.
Consequently, many transsexual persons encounter financial hardship in accessing SRS.
Defined within the transsexual communities, sex reassignment surgery includes a spectrum of medical surgeries transform the sex characteristics of physical body to fit the desired opposite sex body. New transsexual surgery for audience reading, these surgeries include: Defined by GICs and some provincial health New transsexual surgery programs, SRS is limited to sex change surgery, which includes vaginoplasty, metaidioplasty and possibly phalloplasty.
Vaginoplasty — male to female sex change surgery where the penis is converted into a neo-vagina. Other methods include skin grafts and sigmoid colon resection, which allow the penile and scrotal skin to be used to form the labia. This is a routine procedure which often results in a high rate of sexual satisfaction once the region has healed. Phalloplasty — female to male sex change surgery where skin grafts are used to construct and attach a penis.
This procedure is expensive and intrusive, and is usually desired by individuals experiencing a high level of discomfort resulting from GID. Metaidioplasty — female to male sex surgery where the enlarged clitoris resulting from "New transsexual surgery" hormone therapy is partially cut loose so that it can function more like a penis.
This less expensive and intrusive procedure is more often desired due to its high success rate for sexual function afterwards. Chest reconstruction — female to male surgery where the breast tissue is reconstructed to produce a male chest. This procedure has become routine, however caution must be exercised that the surgeon understands the difference between a mastectomy and sex change chest reconstruction.
Breast augmentation — male to female surgery more commonly known as breast implants. This procedure is sometimes necessary for individuals "New transsexual surgery" enhance their female presentation, particularly when hormone therapy does not fully provide sufficient breast growth. This is a routine procedure which is necessary for a transsexual woman to achieve a female physical appearance so that she is accepted as a woman.
Failure to remedy feelings of dysphoria can cause significant health care concerns. Health issues transsexual persons face include; depression, anxiety, anger, stress, drug and alcohol use, eating disorders, childhood trauma, self-harm and suicide.
Supportive counselling and medical care for transsexual persons can greatly alleviate these concerns, and reduce resulting health care costs. Legally, a certificate verifying the completion of SRS by a practising doctor in Canada is to obtain a change of sex on a birth certificate. When using legal documents transsexual persons must decide whether to be honest about their birth sex and face possible discrimination or lie and face the possibility of being caught.
Several participants interviewed in the Trans Health Project, a recent study into health care access for transsexual persons in Ontario reported that SRS was a priority in their lives, and the lack of funding was a barrier to accessing this important health procedure.
The Ministry of Health Schedule of Benefits covered electrolysis for facial hair until November 14, when it was New transsexual surgery as an insured service. It was stalled for a number of years for a variety of reasons, including insufficient funds to put the expert evidence together The case is moving forward now, with the cooperation of many experts. The evidence will be filed at the end of Octoberthen the government will respond with its evidence.
The hearing will likely take place in spring InMartine Stonehouse and others launched a Human Rights complaint against the Provincial government to re-list SRS and protect the health care system from further erosion of critical services. Upon election of a new Provincial government on October 2, the newly appointed Minister of Health and the Attorney General began negotiations with the complainants.
Consequently, the Tribunal hearings restart on Monday, October 4, and will continue until the New Year. New transsexual surgery Columbia In British Columbia, the Hospital Insurance Act covered gender sex reassignment surgery until July when this procedure was delisted from coverage. On June 30, this exclusion
New transsexual surgery repealed because gender reassignment surgery was considered a medically necessary service.
A British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal ruled that female to male sex change surgery performed in the United States should be covered by provincial health insurance Waters v. BC Medical Services Plan, There is no coverage for electrolysis.
SRS is not completed in-province and requires special approval by a departmental committee of Saskatchewan Health. Manitoba Health insures SRS and a variety of related medical procedures including chest reconstruction, hysterectomy, and electrolysis. No coverage exists for breast augmentation. Male to female SRS is covered at the Montreal clinic.
There is no coverage for the facility portion of fees because it is a private clinic. There may be a transportation subsidy for out-of-province travel. Patients must be recommended by the Gender Identity Clinic in Toronto.
However, Quebec only reimburses for the surgery if it is performed in a recognized hospital in Quebec, New transsexual surgery the only place it is actually performed is in a private clinic in Montreal.
Thus, in practice, no surgeries are paid for in Quebec. Provincial health insurance coverage information regarding SRS is not available.