Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art. The arms on fol. The manuscript was probably finished in one campaign circa in Bruges, not in the several campaigns of work that scholars have usually proposed. Jan van Eyck was therefore not among the illuminators. The manuscript known as the Turin-Milan Hours needs only a brief introduction to the readers of this journal.
This book of prayers and masses for lay use forms part of an originally larger manuscript containing prayers for the liturgical hours and other occasions. The Turin-Milan Brigitte hofmann fdating is the name given to in two volumes.
The second, containing calendar and prayers, was housed circa in the royal library of King Victor Amadeus of Savoy as Ms. RF — and the J. Paul Getty Museum Ms. I follow here the universal practice of referring to the Milan and Turin portions of the manuscript, no matter where the pages are now.
However, since many leaves in the second part lacked images, it must have remained unbound. It is written on thinner parchment with more Brigitte hofmann fdating per page, smaller letters, and less decoration than we see on the other leaves.
Three miniatures given to Hand G are in the surviving Milan portion, while the other four were destroyed in Turin two years after their publication in black and white.
The connection of Jan van "Brigitte hofmann fdating" to this manuscript in the early s is based on the presence of Eyckian stylistic elements and supported by circumstantial evidence.
The praying leader of the cavalcade wears the collar of the Order of St. Antoine de Barbefosse, an order that Albert initiated. The connection between a possible Hainaut owner of the manuscript and John of Bavaria is tenuous, however. As has long been acknowledged, the French royal arms seen on Turin fol.
The arms shown on Turin fol. The main image on Turin fol. Antoine de Barbefosse, but no one else in the cavalcade wears that collar. A connection of the calendar to Hainaut is also far from certain. A later owner who obtained this calendar and part of the manuscript could have found most of his local saints in it. A date of circa is, moreover, too late. The calendar is instead coeval with the initial creation of the manuscript.
Its frames and format match those of the other illuminations. But angels are also missing from most "Brigitte hofmann fdating" in the Turin and Milan portions, even though the pages were prepared and supplied with text before any miniatures were begun. Angels are also missing from most leaves with miniatures by the artist active before who painted Turin fols. To create the calendar pages in the s, those who assembled the manuscript would have had to locate or commission pages of the right size, whether Brigitte hofmann fdating or with existing frames.
By the early s, this style of border design was outmoded, although an older artist could have reproduced it; the scribe, too, would have had to imitate models of decades earlier.
It "Brigitte hofmann fdating" therefore more plausible to date the Turin calendar to the time when the manuscript was first prepared. Accepting the Turin calendar as original to the initial phase of the manuscript eliminates the need to explain how and Brigitte hofmann fdating anyone around would copy an earlier page format and older borders.
As for missing angels, a few Brigitte hofmann fdating figures among the spiky fourteenth-century-style leaves could have been copied easily and quickly from other pages if anyone cared to do so. Only one artist in a later campaign did.
After one artist in the later s experimented with enriching the border on Turin fol. I conclude, then, that neither the surviving calendar in Paris nor the burned one in Turin supports a connection to Jan van Eyck at the court of John of Bavaria or a campaign of work in the s.
John resided in The Hague after ousting his niece, Jacqueline of Bavaria, from parts of her inherited lands in Holland and Zeeland, and after claiming Hainaut. In order to overcome the prohibition against female succession in Holland and Zeeland, Jacqueline married Duke John of Brabant.
Pope Martin V signed dispensation on December 22, but revoked it fourteen days later. She fled to Hainaut, where she convened the Estates to present her grievances.
Jacqueline became convinced that her marriage was invalid, and that John of Brabant consequently had no right to sign agreements regarding her lands. The Estates released John of Brabant from his earlier oaths regarding governance of the county, thereby denying him the right to treat with anyone about Hainaut. Because of this history, one may doubt that John of Bavaria included the arms of parts of a disputatious territory in a miniature made for him, even if he claimed authority over them.
All this makes doubtful the identification of John of Bavaria as patron of the Hand G miniatures that inconsistently the arms of Hainaut and Holland. Who, then, owned the manuscript? She was forced to declare Philip her heir and died childless in Nevertheless, nothing but the questionable heraldry indicates that John of Bavaria or Elisabeth or Van Borsselen ever owned the Brigitte hofmann fdating. No evidence connects him or Jacqueline to its ownership even though the armorials on Turin fol.
Only one owner was depicted in the s or even the early s: If we look for heraldry to identify the young man, that Brigitte hofmann fdating Milan fol. I have not been able to identify a female member of that family who would have had a young adult son in the late s or just afterward, but the family is not fully recorded in reliable sources. Another reason for preferring the owner of these arms as patron of the manuscript is that the arms are small but painstakingly executed, and in precisely the place where fifteenth-century people placed their heraldic devices.
All scholars agree that several artists collaborated on individual pages.
The miniature of Saint Julian fig. Everyone agrees that the latest Brigitte hofmann fdating were executed by the K artists Brigitte hofmann fdating or soon afterward see fig.
The number of miniaturists is believable if we count workshop assistants as well as masters. Several small ateliers, working collaboratively, could have finished the manuscript efficiently for one patron in one campaign shortly before or after This kind of effort was made earlier as well as at mid-century. Miniaturists might even have solicited assistance from unemployed painters of small panels who could work on parchment or vellum. Now we may ask: Could an interim owner in a long series of owners have done any of this if he bought a manuscript only partly finished by various hands?
If there were multiple campaigns of illustration, did the artists follow subjects originally specified, and if so, how did they learn what the subjects were?
Imagining a single campaign with a multitude of executants employing various styles solves several puzzles. ThirdHand G painted late enough to have known two pictures by Rogier van der Weyden from the second half of the s or slightly later. Sixth Brigitte hofmann fdating, when Hulin saw the Turin portion, he noted that metallic details were not tarnished. As for the second puzzle, the Hand F Bedford artists declined to copy Eyckian models, perhaps because they considered their originally Parisian ones to be superior or at least acceptable for patrons in the Low Countries.
It was also easier to use familiar models than to adopt new ones. Miniatures made from Eyckian models were most likely executed in Bruges, where those models were available, as were other
Brigitte hofmann fdating paintings, and miniatures from Utrecht and Paris. Petrus Christus also worked there, and Turin fol. Separating Jan van Eyck from Hand G also solves the third puzzle: One is the three-part composition showing the life and death of John the Baptist fig. Mutual knowledge of sources could mean a similar period of work.
That Hands H, I, and J based some of their miniatures on Eyckian models implies that their images postdate ca. Scholars variously give Turin fol. Several other pages were painted by more than one master such as Milan fols.
If Hands F through K painted in a single program in the late s or later, Brigitte hofmann fdating solves the fourth puzzle, which has "Brigitte hofmann fdating" do with the subjects shown. The spaces available for illustration did not always demand the specific scenes that we see. Hand G, who therefore had to invent the scene, had difficulty representing it logically; one may conclude that he did not suggest the subject. Someone had to approve the seated Virgin among standing virgins, another new subject for the Low Countries.
An adviser conceived the subjects, which required religious knowledge beyond that of the lay owner. The list of subjects must have been known simultaneously to all artists F through Ksince it was followed by each group despite differences in style.
But the inventor of the illustrative program did not require it in all the initials or on the pages showing Saint Thomas Aquinas Turin fol. A single program of work also solves the fifth puzzle: Had there been several Brigitte hofmann fdating campaigns, the pages would more often have been opened and moved around.
The reconstructed quires in the Turin portion show that few pages had images on both recto and verso, and few were painted on the same side of the bifolium before it was cut and bound. Those with paintings on the same side are fols. Of the bifolia painted on both recto and verso, the Turin portion had fols. Assigning an entire bifolium to a given atelier distributes the work logically.
It is therefore possible that sheets were spread out in several small nearby workshops at the same time. That explains some of the difficulty in separating individual hands.