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Fruit fly asexual reproduction in humans

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The extensive conservation of mitochondrial structure, composition, and function across evolution offers a unique opportunity to expand our understanding of human mitochondrial "Fruit fly asexual reproduction in humans" and disease. By investigating the biology of much simpler model organisms, it is often possible to answer questions that are unreachable at the clinical level.

Here, we review the relative utility of four different model organisms, namely the bacteria Escherichia colithe yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogasterin studying the role of mitochondrial proteins relevant to human disease. Studied for over a century, D. The respective strengths and limitations of each species relative to mitochondrial studies are explored.

In addition, an overview is provided of major discoveries made in mitochondrial biology in each of these four model systems. Mitochondria are organelles present in all eukaryotic species. Nevertheless, all eukaryotes do not contain prototypic mitochondria, nor are all mitochondria the same within a single organism. The suite of functions performed by mitochondria varies, depending both on environmental conditions and tissue demands.

These findings imply that mitochondria are dynamic organelles which, even today, remain under evolutionary pressure. Best scientific estimates trace the origin of mitochondria to a purple eubacteria-like organism that established itself in an endosymbiosis with a primitive nucleated cell approximately 2 billion years ago Margulis The transition from this ancestral purple eubacteria into modern mitochondria has been accompanied by major macromolecular rearrangements.

Entire metabolic pathways have vanished, most genetic information necessary for mitochondrial structure and function has been transferred to the nucleus, and new protein functions have been acquired within mitochondria largely Fruit fly asexual reproduction in humans their co-evolving eukaryotic host.

It is highly likely that a similar complement of mitochondrial proteins exist in humans Pagliarini et al. To date, mitochondria-localized proteins have been implicated in human disorders Chinault et al. Although the vast majority of mitochondrial proteins appear to have been at least tentatively identified, the means by which mutated versions of these proteins lead to mitochondrial diseases that have a broad spectrum of pathogenesis and phenotypic presentations remain largely unexplained.

Here, we will review the relative utility of four model organisms, namely the bacteria Escherichia colithe yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruitfly Drosophila melanogasteremphasizing insights each has afforded in Fruit fly asexual reproduction in humans pursuit of improved understanding of the role and functions of mitochondrial proteins relevant to human disease.

Bacteria are single cell, prokaryotic organisms that are typically several microns in length, which is similar in size to mitochondria.

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