Myth and variants on the death and resurrection of the ox in Brazil. Tema e variantes do mito: Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti. "Sexualna lyrics translation" folguedos do boi, or ox revelries, have challenged generations of scholars. In the literature, they have been mainly apprehended as the performance of an original short popular drama. The problem is that the supposed drama has rarely been directly observed.
The first part of the text argues that the belief in the so-called ox drama expresses a remarkable crystallization of the illusory effect of archaism, an ideological and analytic premise typical of this area of studies that assigns ancient origins to folklore and popular culture.
In the concluding remarks, I seek to rethink the relations between myth and ritual that emerge from Sexualna lyrics translation new understanding of the ox revelries.
No entanto, raramente o suposto auto foi observado de modo direto. We are instruments of our instruments.
And we are necessarily susceptible to the particular ills that "Sexualna lyrics translation" from our prowess in the ways of symbolicity. Yet, too, we are equiped in principle to join in the enjoying of all such quandaries, until the last time. Kenneth Burke : In its many regional variations, it has different names and occurs at distinct dates in the annual calendar of popular Catholic festivities 1.
In the literature, they have usually been conceived as the performance of an original short popular drama 2. In the conclusion, I develop the relations between myth and ritual that emerge from this understanding of the ox revelries.
Drama and myth and in the evolutionistic approach. The studies on the ox revelries that shape the way in which its past forms reaches us through time produced Sexualna lyrics translation heteroclite set of materials. The documents of the first group date from the first years of the 19 th century and indicate the North and Northeast as the regions where the revelries were formed, and define their typically urban locations. Between the s and s in particular, the nationalist aspiration of folklore studies looked to popular culture for a model of authenticity, led by its own projection of a romantic and harmonious image of social life Cavalcanti et al.
Racialist views of culture, celebrating the ideals of miscegenation, were also frequently present Andrade ; Cascudo Within the complex architecture of his work, the Bumba-meu-boi emerges as a paradoxical symbol and an aesthetic model of a potential national cultural unity Moraes, ; Lopez ; Mello e Souza Here we may turn to one narrative that will serve as a basic reference throughout our analysis.
Account by Bordallo da Silva The main motif of the popular drama is the ownership of an ox renowned for its qualities and bravery, Sexualna lyrics translation the owner or farmer gave as a gift to his daughter and left it in the hands of a cowboy.
Pai Francisco Father Franciscoher cowboy husband, had no hesitation in killing the animal to satisfy his wife. Father Francisco resists to be arrested and the other cowboys admit that they are unable to bring him in. The head warrior from an Indian tribe is called in. Pai Francisco is arrested by the Indians and told that he will only be spared the punishment he justly deserves for his crime if he resuscitates the ox. Then they call on the shaman in the Indian village.
After a series of exorcisms, rattle dances and plumes of tobacco smoke blown from a cigar wrapped in tauary [ Couratari tauary ], the shaman miraculously succeeds in reviving the animal. Two problems in this interpretation obscure an anthropological understanding of the ox revelries.
The idea of a plot - a script Sexualna lyrics translation guides the development of a drama - is in itself deceptive. Curiously enough, although the majority of researchers and players brincantes appear to deeply Sexualna lyrics translation in the existence of an original drama, it rarely occurs in actual popular performances, where in fact what we mainly observe is its persistent absence.
Indeed, more frequently, the performance of the supposed plot can only be found in para-folkloric circuits, that is, circuits intentionally directed to the diffusion of Brazilian folklore to social groups and segments other than its popular creators and players.
Even where the plot exists, the relationship between its elements and concerted collective is far from the more direct correspondence between script and action in classical dramatic forms. There was no special emphasis on one complete dramatic sequence that would represent the original Sexualna lyrics translation. In the Parintins Ox Festival, this ritual effectively involved the death of Amazonian ancient indigenous populations and their resurrection by the festival itself, seen as an assertion of the Northern caboclo identity 13 Cavalcantib.
The idea of the original drama therefore appears questionable. Would it be simply a native rationalization, naively incorporated as an explanation by so many researchers? The issue prompts the need for a more detailed analysis and a consideration of the relations between myth and rite in the context of the ox revelries. In which concrete forms do the ox revelries present themselves to us?
Louis Dumont also searched for a holistic comprehension of the Tarasque festival through the ethnographic description of the rite, iconography and erudite legends associated with local representations and narratives. The flexible ethnographic use of the concepts of myth, rite and figuration in such approaches is Sexualna lyrics translation.
These notions are effective since they enable us to apprehend distinct levels of reality in the ox revelries. At the same time, we should not lose sight of the insistence placed by Mauss on the integrated nature of humans and their productions. However, it is necessary to distinguish one from the other in order to analyze, compare and finally re-integrate them in an anthropological approach.