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Original contributions to The Grove should be submitted to the Editor, at the following address: Editor de The Grove. Facultad de Huma- 2. Dark giants slumber Under cold star blankets 2. Contributions should be on soft disks 3. The surname of the author should Waiting for daybreak. As the articles will appear in In icy seas and sand alphabetical order, this facilitates the process.
The adhesive label attached to the disk Stone giants seem to sleep should indicate the name of the author, the word processing programme and the version Their fringed green tonsures seen. Their feet, fifty fathoms deep. A hard copy of the article in DIN A-4 format should also be submitted. Contributions should be of 10 pages maximum, typed with single spacing. Tide turns type and in upper case letters.
Three lines below should appear the name of the author, Day turns. On the following line the name of the institution Night turns into day where you work if any should be entered also in lower case letters. Moon turns the tide 6. Three lines should be left blank, then a summary or abstract in italics, written in Night day night day English regardless of Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating language in which the article is written, of words Light day dark night Earth turns maximum, should be included.
The heading entitled Abstract should be in bold types. Three more lines should be left blank between the abstract and the article itself, which And turns again. Subtitles or headings of the numbered sections, should be in bold type and lower case. Tabulations should not be used nor have a final punctuation mark.
Lemon mountains Pink mountains 9. Between a subtitle or heading and its corresponding section a line should be left blank. After each section two lines should be left blank before the heading of the next Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating. At the end of each subsection, and before beginning another subtitle or heading, a line Near mountains should be left blank.
Far mountains Mystic mountains The beginning of each paragraph should be indented. The side and upper margins should be 3,54 cms. The pages should not be numbered. The letter type of the body of the article should be CG Times Foot notes should be in CG Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating 10, with a tabulation and the number as a supescript.
Her interests include teaching meth- as in this publication. She has published various articles on topics such as creativity Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating teaching, the use of poetry in language classrooms, humanistic and holistic approaches to teaching and learning as well as the use of imagery and imagination in teaching and learning. A functional approach to the teaching of grammar is presented, bearing in mind learner and instructional variables and considering grammar Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating a useful tool to express notions and functions.
Vocabulary presentation techniques and acquisition strategies are offered in order to help students to acquire lexis in a contextualized, experiential way, taking advantage of the several aspects which account for the knowledge of words. Pronunciation is focused in a feasible and realistic way with special attention to the role of students and teacher and to the particular techniques related to the presentation and practice of sounds, stress, rhythm, and intonation.
The paper also contributes suggested classroom activities in all the three areas. In other words, linguistic competence The Grove If we limit the concept of competence to the purely grammatical field, the picture is incomplete.
Language does not occur in a vacuum. Knowledge of the rules is not enough, because we have to take into account the social context in which language occurs and the Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating relations it expresses.
Communicative competence has been defined as a more general communicative ability concerning usage the knowledge of the formal systemuse using that formal system to achieve some kind of communicative purposeand the socio-cultural interactional context in which language takes Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating. It also implies an awareness of, and a sensitivity towards, the values and traditions of the language, i.
It is this kind of competence the native speaker has at which our teaching efforts should be aimed. Communicative competence should not be identified with actual communication, although it is an essential part of it.
Due to limiting conditions, such as memory, fatigue or nervousness, sometimes communicative competence is reflected only indirectly or imperfectly in actual communication cf. Communicative competence comprises several competencies and the objective should be to avoid the phenomenon with which many teachers of English are familiar, i.
In this paper attention will be focused on the instruction of the grammatical one, here called linguistic so as to include not only grammar but also vocabulary and pronunciation. Linguistic competence This refers to the mastery of the language code, including aspects such as vocabulary, word formation, sentence formation, pronunciation, and spelling, that is to say, the formal linguistic side of language use phonology and orthography, grammar -syntax and morphology- and lexis.
For years this was the only kind of knowledge thought to be necessary to be proficient in a language. It is clear by now that language is more than simply system of rules and that knowledge about a second language is not sufficient for effective use of it in actual communication situations.
A knowledge of the grammatical system -the skeleton of the language- is essential in order to perform any kind of communicative task. With respect to the traditional -structural- syllabus, a change of focus is proposed. The structural syllabus put grammar items first, designing courses with grammatical contents. The syllabus was designed in terms of contents and not in terms of objectives.
However, grammar is not an end in itself, but a means to achieve functional objectives in the language. And this is what the communicative syllabus advocates.
We want to learn a language to function with it. In this sense, notions abstract concepts and communicative functions the purpose, why we use the language are seen as primary objectives. The syllabus is designed in terms of objectives. Grammar is necessary in the form of language exponents to express those notions and functions, a means to achieve a 1 Bachman reorganized this classification, distinguishing Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating aspects of communicative language proficiency: Language competence comprises organizational competence which, in turn, is subdivided grammatical competence and textual competence and pragmatic competence including illocutionary competence and sociolinguistic competence.
The model may be more adequate from a descriptive point of view but I consciously ignore it here because I consider the one by Canale still adequate, simpler, and clearer. In this line, grammar can be perceived as a useful tool by the students and not as an invention on the part of teachers and theoreticians. At the same time, it is clear that it should not be displaced from the teaching scene.
The need to teach grammar The ultimate purpose in learning a language is to be able to communicate in it both orally and in a written way and it is obvious that in order to speak or write correctly one needs to know the mechanisms of that language. In the case of the mother tongue we learn to speak and partly to write in "Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating" almost unconscious way.
But this does not happen in the case of a foreign language, which means that some formal instruction is needed. It goes without saying that this need is not Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating same depending "Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating" the different skills, in other words, grammatical consciousness-raising behaves in a different way for each skill cf.
It can be said that grammar instruction is more needed in the case of productive creative skills than in that of receptive interpretative ones.
With regard to the receptive skills, students are supposed to recognise structural elements in order to understand and it is evident that they grasp them better in the case of reading. Extreme versions of the communicative approach in its first years neglected the teaching of grammar probably having in mind a total immersion context where the need to explain grammatical structures is certainly reduced to a minimum, something which does not happen in the case of a foreign language not spoken in the country.
There is no scientific evidence that an exclusively communicative classroom, without any reference to the grammatical skeleton of the Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating, can produce better speakers than those who can be derived from a more or less traditional classroom. Sometimes, in the first case the result may be a sort of pidginized language a set of unconnected agrammatical set phrases which can become fossilized. I am, therefore, convinced of the need to teach grammar formally in the Spanish context, where English is a foreign language, though with a new focus.
Variables affecting the teaching of grammar Deciding how much grammar instruction should be given and how intense grammar practice should be depends on many variables cf. Celce- Murcia,the skill practised being one of them as stated above.
Some variables have to do with students themselves, such as learning style some students prefer more instruction concerning language usage while others prefer practical language use; besides, some may prefer a deductive approach while others lend themselves better to an inductive oneage children and teenagers do need so much grammar instruction as adults dolevel upper-intermediate and advanced students require more insistence on structural aspectsand previous instruction particularly grammar instruction in their mother tongue.
Other variables are related to aspects such as register more grammar accuracy is demanded in formal contextsneed, and use students who intend to make a professional use of the language, e. English Philology students, need more grammar.
It goes without saying that the treatment of grammar instruction cannot be the same in all the cases and teachers should be aware of that fact. Towards a more functional methodology in the teaching of grammar There are two possible ways to present grammatical structures, inductively and deductively discovery learning and rule-driven learning, respectively, according to Thornbury, In the case of the inductive procedure, students are exposed to a series of examples which show the grammatical point at issue so that they can recognize and become familiar with it; then some practice should follow and at the end rules and exceptions Caligrama caracteristicas yahoo dating given.