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Al qiran dating

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The upper text largely Al qiran dating to the standard 'Uthmanic' Quran in text and in the standard order of suras ; whereas the lower text contains many variations from the standard text, and the sequence of its suras corresponds to no known quranic order.

A partial reconstruction of the lower text was published in ; [2] and a reconstruction Al qiran dating the legible portions of both lower and upper texts of the 38 folios in the Sana'a House of Manuscripts was published in utilising post-processed digital images of the lower text. Inconstruction workers renovating a wall in the attic of the Great Mosque of Sana'a in Yemen came across large quantities of old manuscripts and parchments, many of which were deteriorated.

Not realizing their significance, the workers gathered up the documents, packed them away into some twenty potato sacks, and left them on the staircase of one of the mosque's minarets. Qadhi Isma'il al-Akwa', Al qiran dating the president of the Yemeni Antiquities Authority, realized the potential importance of the find.

Al-Akwa' sought international assistance in examining and preserving the fragments, and in managed to interest a visiting German scholar, who in turn persuaded the West German government to organize and fund a restoration project. Restoration of the fragments began in under the supervision of the Yemeni Department for Antiquities.

All of them, except — fragments, were assigned to distinct Quranic manuscripts as of None is complete and many contain only a few folios apiece.

Work on the ground began in and continued through the end ofwhen the project terminated with the end of funding. Puin University of Saarland was the director beginning with His involvement came to an Al qiran dating inwhen Hans-Caspar Graf von Bothmer University of Saarland took over as the local director. She completed the restoration of the manuscripts. Al qiran dating also designed the permanent storage, collated many Al qiran dating fragments to identify distinct Quranic manuscripts, and directed the Yemeni staff in the same task.

AfterBothmer would visit the collection periodically. In the winter of —7, he microfilmed all of the parchment Al qiran dating that have been assigned to distinct Quranic manuscripts. Of the remaining — fragments, he microfilmed a group of By some 38 folio fragments had been identified as likely to belong to this particular manuscript. The high resolution images form the basis for the editions of both Sadeghi and Gourdazi, and of Asma Hilali. The manuscript is a palimpsestmeaning the parchment was written over once the "lower" textthen its text was erased, and then it was written over a second time the "upper" text with this process potentially Al qiran dating repeated over time with the same parchment.

In the Sana'a palimpsest, both the upper and the lower text are the Qur'an written in the Hijazi script. The upper text appears to have been presented a complete text of the Qur'an, but Al qiran dating this was also the case for the lower text remains an issue of scholarly debate. In the standard Qur'an, the suras are presented in an approximate sequence of decreasing length; hence a fragmentary Qur'an that follows the standard order of suras can generally be assumed to have once presented the complete text, but the contrary is not the case.

The manuscript that was discovered, however, is not complete. The parchment is of inferior quality; many folios having holes around which both upper and lower text have been written. However, when the scale of the writing and the provision of marginal spaces is taken into account, the overall quantity of animal hides implied as being committed to the production of a full manuscript of the Qur'an would not have been less than for such high quality Qur'ans as the Codex Parisino-petropolitanus BNF Arabe ab.

The upper text conforms closely with that underlying the modern Quran in use, and has been dated as probably from sometime between the end of the 7th and the beginning of 8th-century CE. Asma Hilali provides a full transcription of the upper text from the 26 legible folios in the House of Manuscripts, and found 17 non-orthographic variants in these pages, "Al qiran dating" readings differ from those in the 'standard' Qur'an text; as presented in the Cairo edition.

Five of these 17 variants in the upper text correspond to known Qira'at readings in the tradition of quranic variants.

The density of the writing of the upper text varies from page to page and within pages; such that the amount of text transcribed on each page varies from Subsequent to the completion of the text, polychrome decoration has been added in the form of bands separating the suras, and indicators of 10, 50 and verse divisions in a variety of particular forms. Much of these decorations are unfinished. In addition, the upper text formerly Al qiran dating individual verse separators; some contemporary with the text, others inserted later.

The counts of verses corresponding to Al qiran dating polychrome verse indicators are not consistent with the counts of individual verse indicators; implying that the former were copied across other Qur'ans.

The surviving lower text from 36 of the folios in the House of Manuscripts, together with the lower text from those auctioned abroad, were published in March in a long essay by Behnam Sadeghi Professor of Islamic Studies at Stanford University and Mohsen Goudarzi PhD student at Harvard University. The lower text was erased and written over, but due to the presence of metals in the ink, the lower text has resurfaced, and now appears in a light brown color, the visibility of which can be enhanced in ultra-violet light.

But while there are other known instances of disused Qur'ans being reused for other texts; there are only a few known instances of a new Qur'an being written using re-used parchment; and all these examples are believed "Al qiran dating" have been from the Sana'a cache.

The re-use in this case may have been purely for economic reasons. Otherwise Asma Hilali has proposed that both the upper and lower text show characteristics of being schoolroom 'exercises' in quranic writing; in which case scraping and re-use was to be expected.

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In places, individual readings in the lower text appear to have been corrected in a separate hand to conform better to corresponding readings in the standard Qur'an. Elizabeth Puin has Al qiran dating this hand the 'lower modifier'; and proposes that these correction were undertaken before the whole lower text was erased or washed off. Although the suras of the lower text do not follow the canonical order Al qiran dating have many additional words and phrases; nevertheless with only two exceptions within each sura the surviving lower text presents the same verses as the standard Qur'an and in exactly the same order.

The exceptions being in sura 20, where Sadeghi and Goudarzi find that verses 31 and 32 are transposed; and in sura 9, where Sadeghi and Goudarzi find that the whole of verse 85 is absent neither of these passages of the lower text are in folios that Asma Hilali found to be legible. Some of the variants between the lower text and the standard Qur'an are provided by Sadeghi and Goudarzi below.