In human social affairsdiscrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction towards, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
These include agecolourconvictions for which a pardon has been granted or a record suspended, heightdisabilityethnicityfamily statusgender identitygenetic characteristicsmarital statusnationalityracereligionsexand sexual orientation. Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary of the world, including in territories where discrimination is generally looked down upon.
In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those who are believed to be Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary or past victims of discrimination—but they have sometimes been called reverse discrimination.
The term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language. It is from the Latin discriminat- 'distinguished between', from the verb discriminarefrom discrimen 'distinction', from the verb discernere. Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration. This is a comparative definition.
An individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against. They just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason. If someone decides to donate to help orphan children, but decides to donate less, say, to black children out of a racist attitude, then they would be acting in a discriminatory way despite the fact that the people they discriminate against actually benefit by receiving a donation.
It is similar to the action of recognizing someone as 'different' so much that they are treated inhumanly and degraded. Based on realistic-conflict theory  and social-identity theory,  Rubin and Hewstone  have highlighted a distinction among Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary types of discrimination:.
The United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement: Ageism or age Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someone's age.
Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. They found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years.
In Belgium, they are only discriminated if they have more years of inactivity or irrelevant employment.
This is a higher proportion than for gender or racial discrimination. Dominic Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionarysocial psychology professor at the university, concluded that ageism is the most pervasive form of prejudice experienced in the UK population.
Discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are not is called ableism or disablism.
Disability discrimination, which treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of 'normal living', results in public and private places and services, education, and social work that are built to serve 'standard' people, thereby excluding those with various disabilities. Studies have shown, employment is needed to not only provide a living but to sustain mental health and well-being.
Work fulfils a number of basic needs for an individual such as collective purpose, social contact, status, and activity.
In the United States, the Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary with Disabilities Act mandates the provision of equality of access to both buildings and services and is paralleled by similar acts in other countries, such as the Equality Act in the UK. Diversity of language is protected and respected by most nations who value cultural diversity.
Notable examples are the Anti-French sentiment in the United States as well as the Anti-Quebec sentiment in Canada targeting people who speak the French language. Commonly, the preferred language is just another attribute of separate ethnic groups. Another noteworthy example "Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary" linguistic discrimination is the backdrop to the Bengali Language Movement in erstwhile Pakistan, a political campaign that played a key role in the creation of Bangladesh.
InMohammad Ali Jinnah declared Urdu as the national language of Pakistan and branded those supporting the use of Bengalithe most widely spoken language in the state, as enemies of the state.
Language discrimination is suggested to be labeled linguicism or logocism. Discrimination based on a person's name may also occur, with research suggesting the presence of discrimination based on name meaning, pronunciation, uniqueness, gender affiliation, and racial affiliation. Discrimination on the basis of nationality is usually included in employment laws  see above section for employment discrimination specifically.
It is sometimes referred to as bound together with racial discrimination  although it can be separate. It may vary from laws that stop refusals of hiring based on nationality, asking questions regarding origin, to prohibitions of firing, forced retirement, compensation and pay, etc.
Discrimination on the basis of nationality may show as a "level of acceptance" in a sport or work team regarding new team members and employees differ from the nationality of the majority of team members.
In the workplace, preferential treatment is given to full citizens, even though many of them lack experience or motivation to do the job. State benefits are also generally available for citizens only. Racial and ethnic discrimination differentiates individuals on the basis of real and perceived racial and ethnic differences and leads to various forms of the ethnic penalty.
Discriminatory policies towards ethnic minorities include the race-based discrimination of ethnic Indians and Chinese in Malaysia  After the Vietnam warmany Vietnamese refugees moved to the United Stateswhere they face discrimination. The Equality and Human Rights Commission found that in England and Wales as of [update]a black person was five times more likely to Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary imprisoned than a white person.
The discrepancy was attributed to "decades of racial prejudice in the criminal justice system". In the United States, racial profiling of minorities by law-enforcement officials has been called racial discrimination.
Racial discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States and in Europe. They found that racial discrimination in the labour market is heterogeneous by the labour market tightness in the occupation: Regional or geographic discrimination is discrimination based on the region in which a person lives or was born. It differs from national discrimination in that it may not be based on national borders or the country the victim lives in, but is instead based on prejudices against a specific region of one or more countries.
Examples include discrimination against Chinese born in countryside far from city within China, and discrimination against Americans from the southern or northern regions of the United States. It is often accompanied by discrimination based on accent, dialect, or cultural differences. Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe or because of their feelings towards a given religion.
For instance, the indigenous Christian population of the "Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary"known as the "rayah" or the "protected flock", was discriminated against under the Ottoman Kanun—i—Rayah.
The word is sometimes translated as 'cattle' rather than 'flock' 'subjects' in order to emphasize the Christian population's inferior status to that of the Muslim rayah.
Restrictions upon Jewish occupations were imposed by Christian authorities. Local rulers and church officials closed many professions to religious Jews, pushing them into marginal roles considered socially inferior, such as tax and rent collecting and moneylendingoccupations only Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary as a "necessary evil".
In a consultation on the issue, the United States commission on civil rights defined religious discrimination in relation to the civil rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Whereas religious civil liberties, such as the right to hold or not to hold a religious belief, are essential for Freedom of Religion in the United States secured by the First Amendmentreligious discrimination occurs when someone is denied "the equal protection of the laws, equality of status under the law, equal treatment in the administration of justice, and equality of opportunity and access to employment, education, housing, public services and facilities, and public accommodation because of their exercise of their right to religious freedom".
Though gender discrimination and sexism refer to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discriminationon the other hand, may have legal consequences. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex.
Discrimination of that nature is considered a form of prejudice and in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries. Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance, "Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary" employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or by an employer not hiring or promoting, unequally paying, or wrongfully terminating, an employee based on their gender.
Sexual discrimination can also arise when the dominant group holds a bias against the minority group.
One such example is Wikipedia. In the Wikipedian community, around 13 percent of registered users are women. Women are not only more harshly scrutinized, but the representation of women authors are also overlooked. Relative to men, across all source lists, women have a 2.
Another setting where there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking; for example if one is refused credit or is offered unequal loan terms based on one's gender. Direct sex discrimination is fairly easy to spot — 'Barmaid wanted', but indirect sex discrimination, where an unnecessary requirement puts one sex at a disproportionate disadvantage compared to the opposite sex, is sometimes less easy to spot, Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary some are obvious — 'Bar person wanted — must look good in a mini skirt'.
Socially, sexual differences have been used to justify different roles for men and womenin some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary roles. While there are alleged non-physical differences between men and women, major reviews of the academic literature Homosexual discrimination wikipedia dictionary gender difference find only a tiny minority of characteristics where there are consistent psychological differences between men and women, and these relate directly to experiences grounded in biological difference.
Unfair discrimination usually follows the gender stereotyping held by a society.