Edited and revised by David C. Plant propagation is the process of creating new plants. There are two types of propagation: Sexual reproduction is the union of the pollen and egg, drawing from the genes of two parents to create a new, third individual. Sexual propagation involves the floral parts of a plant. Asexual propagation involves taking a part of one parent plant and causing it to regenerate itself into a new plant.
The resulting new plant is genetically identical its Asexual plant propagation marcotting images. Asexual propagation involves the vegetative parts of a plant: The advantages of sexual propagation are that it may be cheaper and quicker than other methods; it may be the only way to obtain new varieties and hybrid vigor; in certain species, it is the only viable method for propagation; and it is a way to avoid transmission of certain diseases.
Asexual propagation has advantages, too. It may be easier and faster in some species; it may be the only way to perpetuate some cultivars; and it bypasses the juvenile characteristics of certain species.
Sexual propagation involves the union of the pollen male with the egg female to produce a seed. The seed is made up of three parts: When a seed is mature and put in a favorable environment, it will germinate begin active growth. In the following section, seed germination and transplanting of seeds will be discussed.
Seed To obtain quality plants, start with good quality seed from a reliable dealer. Select varieties to provide the size, color, and habit of growth desired. Choose varieties adapted to your area which will reach maturity before an early frost.
Many new vegetable and flower varieties are hybrids, which cost a little more than open pollinated types. However, hybrid plants usually have more vigor, more uniformity, and better production than non-hybrids and sometimes have specific disease resistance or other unique cultural characteristics. Quality seed will not contain seed of any other crop, weeds, seeds, or other debris. Printing on the seed packet usually indicates essential information about the variety, the year for which the seeds were packaged, and germination percentage you may Asexual plant propagation marcotting images expect, and notes about any chemical seed treatment.
If seeds are obtained well in advance of the actual sowing date or are stored surplus seeds, keep them in a cool, dry place. Laminated foil packets help ensure dry storage. The door shelves in a refrigerator work well.
Some gardeners save seed from their own gardens; however, such seed is the result of random pollination by insects or other natural agents, and may not produce plants typical of the parents. This is especially true of the many hybrid varieties. See UMaine Extension Bulletin for information on how to save your own seed. Germination will begin when certain internal requirements have been met. A seed Asexual plant propagation marcotting images have a mature embryo, contain a large enough endosperm to sustain the embryo during germination, and contain sufficient hormones to initiate the process.
There are four environmental factors which affect germination: The first step in the germination process is the imbibition or absorption of water.
Even though seeds have great absorbing power due to the nature of the seed coat, the amount of available water in the substrate affects the uptake of water. An adequate, continuous supply of water is important to ensure germination. Once the germination process has begun, a dry period can cause the death of the embryo.
Light is known to stimulate or to inhibit germination of some types of seed.
The light reaction involved here is a complex process. Some crops which have a requirement for light to assist seed germination are ageratum, begonia, browallia, impatiens, lettuce, and petunia.
Conversely, peas, beans, calendula, centaurea, annual phlox, verbena, and vinca will germinate best in the dark. Other plants are not specific at all. Seed catalogs and seed packets often list germination or cultural tips for individual varieties. When sowing light-requiring seed, do as nature does, and leave them on the soil surface.
If they are covered at all, cover them lightly with fine peat moss or fine vermiculite. These two materials, if not applied too heavily, will permit some light to reach the seed and will not limit germination. When starting seed in the home, supplemental light can be provided by fluorescent fixtures suspended 6 to 12 inches above the seeds for 16 hours a day. High intensity lights will provide more light over the course of the day and will enhance the quality of seedlings.