UBC Theses and Dissertations. Designing Adaptive Interfaces for Children: The overall goal of our research was to design adaptive interfaces that change to accommodate the inherent age and gender differences among children. We conducted two studies towards this goal at Science World with children between ages 3 to In the first exploratory study, we observed how children interacted with Tux Paint, a painting application designed for children, and the difficulties they encountered in general.
Hence, we observed how they used the help system and how they learned by watching their peers. We found that designing an effective help system for children was a tricky proposition fraught with challenges. As for our inquiry into the general difficulties, we identified that dialogs were a significant source of problems for children. We classified the problems with dialogs by age groups and set out to solve them with potential design solutions targeted at three different age groups.
In the second observational study, we observed how 84 children interacted with our various dialog box designs embodying 8 design factors. The dialog boxes were designed with the goal of enabling efficient communication of information; children need to understand the information that is communicated and make informed decisions.
We found that while some design factors helped achieve effective communication, some did not. We put forth theories and present models on how children of different age and gender consumed iii information differently from different information channels textual and non-textual. We discuss the design implications of our findings that could help designers in constructing adaptive interfaces that improve the interaction by taking the age and gender into account.
The most active group is highlighted. The safer responses are highlighted in green. The buttons are revealed in the clockwise direction. Quit dialog
Ubc x zyte online dating also color coded while Erase is not. In the picture on the right, a research assistant can be seen
Ubc x zyte online dating the far end assisting a child. Gradually revealing information and choices to solve some problems with dialogs.
I am grateful for her kindness, understanding and support. Many thanks to Dr. Charlotte Tang for bringing this thesis to its current form, emphasizing readability and structure, patiently through a number of reviews.
I thank Professor Gail Murphy for being the second reader. Special thanks to Science World for allowing us to conduct our studies on their premises and Mila Cotic for being our friendly point of contact in Science World. I thank the following UBC graduate students who volunteered and helped me run the studies at Science World: I thank members of the HCI grad forum for providing feedback on initial prototypes. I thank Alex Garnett, Vincent Levesque, Noreen Kamal, and Zoltan Foley-Fisher for participating in peer design evaluations and interviews and helping me with their frank feedback.
I thank Matthew Brehmer for providing me bits of feedback all along the course of my research that turned out to be both useful and important.
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I thank Professor Ron Rensink for providing feedback and pointers on some of the design prototypes, Professor Linda Siegel for helping me in choosing a reading assessment test
Ubc x zyte online dating the study, Professor Janet C Read for advising me about my research, Professor Andrea Bunt for helping me during data analysis and Professor Andrew Baron for sharing his experience in conducting studies at Science World.
I thank the following graduate students for sharing their knowledge about regression analysis: Thanks to all the innumerable open source projects, whose labor I cherish and enjoy every working day. Thanks to all my peers in MUX lab.
This two year journey started with the recommendation letters from Krishnakumar Gopalakrishnan Manager at GoogleDr. Arunkumar Balakrishnan and Dr.
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R Prabhakar Professors at my undergraduate university. I owe them my gratitude. Hence interfaces that help a child to interact independently without adult assistance should be valuable to both the child and the parent. In addition, children do not always benefit from or prefer adult guidance. Computers are increasingly being used to educate children, given their potential to improve learning by tailoring the content according to the capabilities of the children.
It is thus not surprising that children, especially the younger
Ubc x zyte online dating, encounter difficulties when they interact with software by themselves. Therefore in this research we set out to empirically investigate and establish guidelines on the design of developmentally appropriate and usable interfaces, taking factors such "Ubc x zyte online dating" age and gender into account.
This research entails investigation in the fields of developmental psychology and human computer interaction, more specifically, child 3 computer interaction.
As a first step towards achieving this goal, we strive to learn about the differences in interaction patterns among children of different ages and gender in this research. We conducted two studies with children towards this goal. The goal of the first study was to observe how children of different ages and gender interact with software and the general difficulties they face.
The goal of the second study was to evaluate the design solutions aimed at addressing the difficulties identified in the first study, in order to come up with age and
Ubc x zyte online dating specific design implications. Work on designing user interfaces for effective communication of information is presented followed by a discussion on how we consume information and how it is affected by age, literacy and information abundance.
The importance of understanding the crucial role of gender in designing usable systems for both genders is also touched upon. Chapter 3 presents an exploratory study conducted with children between ages 3 to 12 in Science World aimed at providing preliminary knowledge about designing adaptive 4 interfaces and intelligent help systems for children. We identify the challenges in designing an effective help system. We identify several problems that children faced with a specific UI component - dialog boxes.
We classify the problems by age groups and present the design implications.
Chapter 4 presents our various design solutions motivated by the findings of the exploratory study Chapter 3. In total we explore eight different design factors aimed at solving the different problems that children faced with dialog boxes.
Chapter 5 presents a follow-up observational study conducted with 84 children between ages 3 to 12 at Science World, in which we "Ubc x zyte online dating" children of different age groups interacting with dialogs containing our various design factors. Further, we propose theories on how children process information from dialogs, the existence of different channels of information textual and non-textualhow children of different age groups and
Ubc x zyte online dating consume information differently from these channels and the effect of interaction of these channels on the behavior of children.
We discuss the design implications of our findings. Chapter 6 concludes this thesis with an elaboration of our contributions, limitations of this research, and identifies avenues for future research.
Identifies dialog boxes as one of the significant interaction challenges faced by children and classifies the challenges according to different age groups Chapter 3. Realizes the effects of different design factors on different age groups and gender Chapter 5. Proposes preliminary theories about how children consume information on dialogs differently depending on their age and gender Chapter 5.
Collectively, such research should enable us to design software that adapts itself taking into account the inherent differences among children across age, gender, and other such factors.
A secondarily goal is to design interfaces that help children interact independently, with the least amount of adult help. Specifically, this research focuses on designing dialogs to enable effective exchange of information between the computer and children of diverse age groups and gender. This requires
Ubc x zyte online dating together knowledge from several areas.
We then discuss ways to make up for the lack of adult guidance by designing software that effectively communicates information. We also touch upon the importance of understanding the role of gender research in designing usable software for both genders. Second, we present existing limited work on designing dialog boxes to facilitate exchange of information followed by a discussion on designing user interfaces for effective communication of information.
This discussion involves research about how we consume information and how the problem of information abundance has changed our information consumption behaviors and the effects of age and literacy on interaction and information consumption. We conclude this chapter by presenting different methods to increase the communicability of information such as highlighting, using contrast and alternate representations such as icons.
UBC Theses and Dissertations
Ubc x zyte online dating to perform tasks without intervention. In fact, letting children perform the tasks they undertake with as little adult help as possible is crucial to the development of their sense of mastery of the world which in turn is paramount for learning Holt, In addition, children often strive for perfection in performing even the seemingly trivial tasks the need for which adults do not usually understand and experience pride filled moments after accomplishing a task.
This behavior is important for the learning process Holt, Ability is necessary but not sufficient for learning. More importantly, the basic psychological needs of competence 1 and autonomy need to be satisfied for positive affect, engagement and subsequent learning. Autonomy as described by Miserandino can be likened to the sense of mastery as defined by Holt.
These gender differences are larger and hence
Ubc x zyte online dating important for children than for adults for whom the brain has attained full maturity. By ignoring the inherent gender differences and putting both girls and boys through uniform learning systems we are rendering disadvantage to both and thereby helping to reinforce the gender stereotypes rather than breaking them down e.
Hence it is of crucial importance to understand the inherent differences among genders and design our software for children based on those understandings. But society in general and the design community in particular has failed largely to take into account the inherent gender differences when designing for children.
In our studies and subsequent analysis, we have given importance to understanding the role of gender in the observed interaction patterns which should enable us to design better software for both genders.
But adults do not typically sit with and help their children when
Ubc x zyte online dating are using computers. But children are not better off for lack of adult guidance; their competence suffers. Thus although children prefer performing tasks on their own and value their independence Holt,the absence of adult help and guidance when they are using computers affects their learning.
Ubc x zyte online dating is thus important that help be available to children when they need assistance with the computer. Perhaps digital technology can be designed to make up for the lack of human guidance. Well-designed software that effectively communicates helpful information could help children gain autonomy by reducing their reliance on adult help, which is not readily available in many instances, and eventually achieve competence. While there is good potential for a well-designed help system, in practice, children do not read help pages voluntarily.
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Adults exhibit similar behavior Nielsen, ; Krug, In addition, young children find it difficult to comprehend help information in the way it is presented, which is predominantly text. Vancouver Ubc Dating for Vancouver Ubc singles.
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We develop that conniving an true belongings improve red tape representing children was a unjust proposition fraught with challenges. As in spite of our question into the public difficulties, we identified that dialogs were a critical origin of complications in place of children. We classified the hitchs with dialogs before adulthood accumulations and established peripheral exhausted to work them with likely composition solutions targeted at three contradistinct epoch grades.
In the girl friday observational look at, we observed how 84 children interacted with our heterogeneous dialog surround designs embodying 8 configuration factors. The dialog boxes were designed with the aspiration of enabling operative communication of information; children yearn to be aware the ammo that is communicated and build compensate educated decisions.
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