This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results.
The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8. The use of the intrauterine device IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab.
Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse
Qamar yusuf wife sexual dysfunction in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.
Cervicovaginal infections are common in clinical medicine, and one of the most important causes of illness in women of reproductive age. They can lead to mortality and complications such as miscarriage, cervical cancer, preterm delivery, and infertility, 1 and also contribute to high costs in the healthcare system every year. Candida albicansGardnerella vaginalisor Trichomonas vaginalis. Genital infections are often asymptomatic, yet they may be identified with such symptoms as vaginal discharge, burning, itching, and a foul smell.
Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections requires available and cost-effective tests. It is used to look for specific cellular changes caused by microorganisms and to observe the microorganisms present in specimens. Several studies have been conducted across the world to determine the prevalence of genital infections based on Pap smear samples. A study in India reported the prevalence of genital infections as Various studies have been conducted in Iran to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections in different populations.
However, the majority of these studies were conducted among high-risk populations or symptomatic women, or on those attending hospitals or specialist clinics and not on a large and representative population. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections in
Qamar yusuf wife sexual dysfunction women in Iran living in the Zanjan province and the associated risk factors.
It is located in Northwestern Iran and has eight large cities and villages. According to Iranian law and culture, women lose their virginity after marriage. Early marriage, especially in rural areas, is common.
Our study population included 20—year-old, married, divorced, and widowed women living in urban and rural areas. To prevent the loss of Pap smear results, we did not exclude smears that lacked associated demographic or reproductive data. Women who had not performed a Pap smear test during the past eight weeks and were eligible to obtain Pap smear were included in the study. Those who did not fit the selection criteria for obtaining a cervical smear, or who were unwilling to participate in study were excluded.
To conduct the stratified cluster sampling method, each of the cities of Zanjan province Zanjan, Soltanieh, Abhar, Khoramdeh, Tarom, Ijrood, Mahneshan, and Khodabande were considered a cluster. Urban and rural clinics were classified based on population distribution in each cluster, and one to 10 health centers were selected based on their covered populations. In each center, samples were selected from medical records using systematic random sampling. The percentage of women of reproductive age, according to the last census, in each city were: Selected subjects were called and invited to participate in the study.
The data collection tool was a checklist of demographic and reproductive characteristics and cervical cytology results. After obtaining written consent from each woman, their demographic and reproductive information was obtained Qamar yusuf wife sexual dysfunction interviews with trained midwives.
An expert pathologist interpreted and reported the Pap smear findings, which included direct examination of specimens and cytological examination using conventional staining procedures, with an emphasis on identifying infectious agents in the samples. Of the samples, The prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections in all samples was separately investigated according to infection type. For reporting mixed infections, which may occur during sampling, we considered criteria based on at least one or more genital or sexually transmitted infection.
Factors associated Qamar yusuf wife sexual dysfunction genital infections and sexually transmitted infections infected vs. We included variables such as place of residence, contraceptive method, vaginal discharge, menopause, age at first intercourse, and education in the final model. The mean age of participants was The mean age of marriage and first intercourse were The majority of participants were housewives About half of women lived in rural areas and half in urban areas.
Of the participants in this study, In women who used an IUD as a contraceptive, the odds of having genital infection was 1. The odds of having genital infection was 1. Additionally, the odds of having a sexually transmitted infection in women who used an IUD as a contraception was 1.
The odds of having sexually transmitted infection was 1. The overall prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections was The most common genital infections were bacterial vaginosis 8. In addition, women who used "Qamar yusuf wife sexual dysfunction" as a contraceptive, lived in urban areas, and had vaginal discharge, had a greater risk of genital or sexually transmitted infections.
The prevalence of genital infections was consistent with a study conducted in Gorgan In our study, the prevalence of genital infections was higher than those living in urban areas and those with vaginal discharge. The most common genital infections were bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis, which is consistent with several other studies conducted in Iran, China, and India. It is due to a change in the type of bacteria found in the vagina and often occurs during pregnancy.