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Mujer bisexual que es


The relationship between users and health services is considered essential to strengthen the quality of care. However, the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population suffer from prejudice and discrimination in access and use of these services. This study aimed to identify the difficulties associated with homosexuality in access and utilization of health services.

The studies were evaluated according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criterias. Mujer bisexual que es electronic databases search resulted in studies, of which 14 met all inclusion criteria.

A study has found that...

Quantitative articles were predominant, showing the country of United States of America to be the largest producer of research on the topic. The studies reveal that the homosexual population have difficulties of access to health services as a result of heteronormative attitudes imposed by health professionals. The discriminatory attendance implies in human rights violations in access to health services. The non-heterosexual orientation was a determinant factor in Mujer bisexual que es difficulties of accessing health care.

A lot must still be achieved to ensure access to health services for sexual minorities, through the adoption of holistic and welcoming attitudes. The results of this study highlight the need for larger discussions about the theme, through new research and debates, with the aim of enhancing professionals and services for the health care of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons. The right to health is considered universal, resulting from a big political mobilization of society.

Health care, as a right and Mujer bisexual que es of the State is, however, an ideal. The reality is that many countries are crossed by frames of exclusion and violation of fundamental human rights, especially for minority social groups such as Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, and Transgenders LGBT.

Reflecting a new form of expression of sexuality, homosexuality is a condition in which a individual seeks sexual, erotic, and emotional satisfaction with someone of the same sex [ 1 ]. In response to this situation, the LGBT movement has been consolidating worldwide to denounce violations of human and social rights related to the homosexual population, and claim equal rights, especially for access to health services, free of prejudice and discrimination [ 2 ].

Although this is a multifactorial scenario, it may be further complicated because of the poor access to health care and the discriminatory practices of involved professionals stemming from homophobia [ 3 — 5 ].

The fact is that experiences of discrimination and prejudice against sexual minorities Mujer bisexual que es directly contribute to a poorer health status [ 1 ].

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Social stigmatization imposed on sexual minorities have encouraged the recent increase in scientific studies around "Mujer bisexual que es" and its relationship with the process of health and disease [ 6 ].

In response to the LGBT social movement, some countries, Brazil among them, began to consider the specific needs of this group. To this end, the formulation of public health policies began, such as the Brazil without Homophobia Program, inand the preliminary version of the National Comprehensive LGBT Health Plan, in [ 2 ].

Despite Mujer bisexual que es fact that advances were identified, one still observe the difficulties faced by LGBT people in accessing the health system as a result of prejudicial and discriminatory behavior, often adopted by health professionals. Besides biomedical and epidemiological information on disease prevalence, risk, and vulnerability, it becomes important to know the formulation of public health policies directed to the group, implications of gender issues, the structuring of health services, and performance of professionals, since these make up the factors that directly interfere with access and that guarantee the right to health of the homosexual population [ 67 ].

Therefore, this study aimed to identify the difficulties associated with homosexuality in access and utilization of health services through the bibliographic survey of scientific literature on the matter.

The following question informed the review guideline: The following databases were consulted: The option to choose MeSH 3 or MeSH 4 was due to the similarity of their meanings, thereby enabling the identification of a bigger amount of articles on the theme. For all the databases, the same search strategy was adopted.

The collection period occurred from July to May Articles published between and were surveyed.


The analysis followed the predetermined eligibility criteria. The inclusion criteria were: The exclusion criteria were: Two reviewers extracted information Mujer bisexual que es the included studies using a standardized form. The matrix includes information on authors, year of publication, journal database, description of the study sample, the adopted method and the conclusions obtained. The results of the studies were compared, allowing a comprehensive discussion of this topic.

The initial electronic search Mujer bisexual que es the databases resulted in a total of references. The articles were evaluated according to their year of publication and relation to the theme, resulting in an initial exclusion of articles. The remaining 93 articles were compared against the other inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 14 studies Fig. Summary of publications that addressed accessibility to health and health care services.

Axles considered obstacles for access to health services and health care. Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, and Transgenders. The identified studies revealed the main implications of homosexuality towards access to health services: These findings are discussed in categories that gather the main conclusions of research.

Accordingly, the main conclusions of the studies were grouped into three axes based on two models usually adopted in research involving sexual minorities regarding health disparities imposed on the group. This model starts from the premise that sexual minorities experience the chronic stress resulting from the suffered social stigmatization, with negative impacts on health [ 16 ]. According to this model, proximal stress processes include internalized homophobia self-directed aversionand stigma expectation or fear of being rejected in society, with concealment of sexual orientation [ 16 ].

These conditions, found in the conclusions of the studies, may justify the absence of demand for health services. This model recognizes that environmental factors act upon the health determinants of a population [ 17 ]. With regard to homosexual Mujer bisexual que es, the model is useful to conceptualize that the social behavior of the group non-heterosexual orientation affects the environment and, in turn, is affected by it.

This relationship Mujer bisexual que es justify the findings of the studies, where the vocational training in health is grounded on a heteronormative and prejudiced culture, which implies an institutional violence in health services, which can consequently justify the reduction of health care by the LGBT population. LGBT access barriers; ii implications of homosexuality in self-care and health services access; and iii vocational training in health: "Mujer bisexual que es" the first category, the challenges for health care to the LGBT population are discussed, which, in part, are associated with sexual practices and lifestyles of the group perceived as deviant from a supposed normal range defined by gender relations, which indicate heterosexuality as dominant pattern of sexual orientation.

The second category explores the discriminatory attitudes on the part of health professionals, when referring to health care for LGBT clients. The last category addresses the behavior of health professionals when caring for sexual minorities, with such behavior being partly influenced by stereotypes, social taboos and myths about non-heterosexual sexual orientation.

When these papers are rejected, in the example of homosexuality, rejection behaviors are envisioned as a vicious circle, transmitted from generation to generation, and characterized as homophobia [ 1 ]. Homophobia can be defined as the rejection, fear or irrational intolerance towards homosexuality [ 718 ]. Although such studies do not represent the entire population, "Mujer bisexual que es" are an important indicator of the existence of homophobia, which pervades the daily life of the LGBT population.

Homophobic discourses are present in the conduits and in the minds of health professionals.

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For Mujer bisexual que es area workers, the LGBT population is a group of sick people, not worthy to formalize marriages and adopt children; by witnessing attitudes of affection between members of the group, the repulsion of these workers was awakened [ 12 ]. Misconduct, constraints, prejudiced connotations or even verbal abuse on the part of professionals in health facilities, generate reduction in attendance and in seeking assistance.

These attitudes can be experienced as violent situations sometimes silent and sometimes concrete that may contribute to the deviation of own body care and the health of the LGBT population [ 46 ]. As a result of this reality, the group has fears revealing their sexual orientation in health services, anticipating the negative impact that such an attitude can generate in the quality of care "Mujer bisexual que es" 3 ].

Mujer bisexual que es a result of the non-disclosure, the LGBT population is treated as straight and proves to be dissatisfied with the care received, since, in part, this does Mujer bisexual que es address their real needs or even desires [ 10 ].

The presence of internalized homophobia within the LGBT population also appears to be another aggravation for them not to search for services [ 13 ]. Shame and fear of reprisals after disclosure of sexual orientation have shown association with a set of problems among gay and bisexual men, including depression and anxiety, relationship problems, sexual compulsion, and the use of psychoactive substances [ 19 ].

In general, the existence of internal and external homophobia implies the displacement of the population, in cases of illness, to pharmacies first. The LGBT population turn to health units only when the resolution becomes unsuccessful [ 4 ]. Self-medication allows the appearance of diseases, with consequent search for units and emergency wards, often considered the gateway to the system [ 1 ].

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