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Freuds ideas on homosexuality

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Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality have been described as deterministic, whereas he would ascribe biological and psychological factors in explaining the principal causes of homosexuality. Freud believed that humans are born with unfocused sexual libidinal drivesand therefore argued that homosexuality might be a deviation from this. "Freuds ideas on homosexuality," he also felt that certain deeply rooted forms of homosexuality were difficult or impossible to change.

Freud's most important articles on homosexuality were written betweenwhen he published Three Essays on the Theory of Sexualityandwhen he published "Certain Neurotic Mechanisms in Jealousy, Paranoia, and Homosexuality". In his view, this was true anatomically and therefore also mentally and psychologically. Heterosexuality and homosexuality both developed from Freuds ideas on homosexuality original bisexual disposition.

Freud appears to have been undecided whether or not homosexuality was pathologicalexpressing different views on this issue at different times and places in his work.

In developing his theory of...

Freud frequently called homosexuality an "inversion", something which in his view was distinct from the necessarily pathological perversions, and suggested that several distinct kinds might exist, cautioning that his conclusions about it were based on a small Freuds ideas on homosexuality not necessarily representative sample of patients. Freud derived much of his information on homosexuality from psychiatrists and sexologists such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Magnus Hirschfeldand was also influenced by Eugen Steinacha Viennese endocrinologist who transplanted testicles from straight men into gay men in attempts to change their sexual orientation.

Freud stated that Steinach's research had "thrown a strong light on the organic determinants of homoeroticism ", [6] but cautioned that it was premature to expect that the operations he performed would make possible a therapy that could be generally applied. In his view, such transplant operations would be effective in changing sexual orientation only in cases in which homosexuality was strongly associated with physical characteristics typical of the opposite sex, and probably no similar therapy could be applied to lesbianism.

Freud's main discussion of female Freuds ideas on homosexuality was the paper "The Psychogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman," which described his analysis of a young woman who had entered therapy because her parents were concerned that she was a lesbian.

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